ANATOMY OF THE KNEE
As in all articles about injuries, I start with the anatomy first. The knee is the largest joint of the body. This joint, the connection between the femur (upper leg), tibia (tibia) and fibula (calf) is stabilized by divergent ligaments (ties of connective tissue). These ligaments combine the different parts and ensure that they can move in the desired direction only in the desired direction. The knee joint consists of the following parts, of which I only describe the function first to describe possible problems per component:
- Kneecap (patella): The patella has 3 functions: 1 . Ensure optimum leverage of the tendon (quadricepspees that pass into the patella strips) that connect the quadriceps to the tibia. 2. Protection / reduction friction knee joint. The knee disc protects the inner knee joint. Friction is reduced in that both the back of the knee disc and the upper leg (femur) along which it slides (together this is the patella-femoral mechanism), is coated with hyaline cartilage (contains many collagen and elastic fibers). 3. Brakes slow down forward motion by taking over the power of the quadriceps and taking the bending tips of the knee on the upper leg. The quadricepspees and patellapees. This is the big tendon (an attachment) that connects the quadriceps with the tibia. The section above the knee disc is called the quadricepspees and the section below the patella or pinchpeges. The function is (transferring the force of the quadriceps leading to) stretching the leg from curved position (extension). The difference between an attachment and a ligament is that connects an attachment muscle with bone while a ligament connects two pieces of bone such as the crossbars and collateral bands described below.
- The crossbars. The crossbones ensure that the lower leg does not move forward (front crotch) or backward (back crotch) in front of the upper leg. They serve as stabilizers.
- The medial and lateral collateral band . The medial collateral band is located on the inside of the knee and runs from the upper leg over the knee joint to the tibia. The lateral collateral band is located on the outside and runs from the upper leg to the calf. As the crotch straps make sure the lower leg does not shift forward or backward relative to the upper leg, collateral bands ensure that they do not shift inward or outward.
- The menisci . The knee joint contains two menisci, the inner meniscus and the outer meniscus. The menisci are slices of cartilage that divide the force that exerts the upper leg on the tibia. They form a bowl, which makes the upper leg better match the tibia. In addition, they prevent bones from biting by preventing the friction between these bones.
- Other: The above mentioned items cause the most complaints. On the rest of the knee anatomy, I will not enter. However, it is useful to know that the hamstring consists of 3 muscles, the muscular biceps femoris, the musculus semitendinosus and the musculus semimembranosus, whose joints with the shin and leg legs all pass along. These ensure flexion (knee flexion), endorotation (inward rotation: musculus semitendinosus and musculus semimembranosus) and exorption (turning outwards: biceps femoris).
PREVENTION OF KNEE INJURIES
The correct prevention of knee complaints depends in part on the level and type of activities you do or want to do. For example, do you like basketball or volleyball than to recommend sports-specific exercises. Here you should think of the right technique for jumping, landing, turning away etc. These exercises depend on the sport you practice and too numerous to handle all of them. For fitness and bodybuilding prevention is, in principle, easier because there are not often unexpected movements. To prevent knee injuries due to fitness and bodybuilding:
- A good warming up . Eight to ten minutes at 60-70 percent of your maximum heart rate (220-year-old). As you heat your body, synovial fluid is created in the joints for lubrication. This results in less friction. Cycling or a crosstrainer are less stressful for the knee than walking on a tire and therefore recommended. Now I know that many boys do not heat up due to lack of time or simply out of total lack of interest in cardio. As an ectomorph, who only wants to use his time at the gym as efficiently as possible, I had that too. However, this is not a good excuse and I am doing my warming up neatly . However, after a few months, I thought about warming up on the bike in the gym that I also had a normal bike at home. Nowadays, I'm cycling at the gym rather than taking the car. I immediately warmed up and save time and gasoline, helping to keep up to exactly the right bike distance from the gym and therefore take about 10 minutes to do it. Build the load slowly , both during training and training. So do not walk into the gym and squat as seriously as there is a beautiful girl next to the squat kick. Begin your first set (s) of the first exercise for a muscle group, always with a weight that you can repeat at least 15-20 times. This increases neuromuscular activation and prepares the muscles for the greater load that follows.
- Train all the big leg muscles . Imbalance can lead to injuries. For example, too weak muscles cause the knee to clap inward. Too strong quadriceps in relation to the hamstrings make a lot of pressure on the front crotch belt. Provide the correct technique in performing power exercises . Sin to do more harm than good at the gym because you do the exercise wrong.
- Wear good shoes , especially in explosive sports on a hard surface such as soccer, basketball and volleyball. This ensures damping and the correct distribution of pressure.
- A commonly mentioned tip as prevention of knee complaints is the occurrence of overweight (more weight on the knee is more likely to be injuries). However, if you are overweight due to excessive fat, knee complaints are probably not the first reason you will lose weight. If you never managed to watch your weight, it will not work with knee complaints as an argument. Even when you have "overweight" like bodybuilders mass monsters weighing 120 kilos and more while having a fat percentage of less than 5%, the occurrence of knee complaints will not be a quick reason for the muscle mass you are having with great effort and effort
- Built to lose weight.
- Beware of leg extensions . These places a lot of pressure on the knee. They can pose a risk when you perform them too fast or too heavy, but with light weight are also a good exercise for warming up. Begin your leg workout with lightweight weights with a lightweight weight that allows you to do 20-30 repetitions. Personally, I do at least 3 sets of 25-30 repetitions. This seems very much and for other muscle groups I do not do such an extensive muscle-specific warming up. However, I am sensitive to knee complaints and notice that after such warming up I do not suffer from an uncomfortable feeling in the knees during further training or injuries afterwards.
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